• Source: ISO 690, 4.6

  • Serialisation: bibitem/place, bibitem/contributor[role@type = "publisher"], bibitem/date


Strictly speaking the place of production is an attribute of the publisher, and it can in fact be modelled as bibitem/contributor[role@type = "publisher"]/organization/address/city.

However, it is modelled as a top-level attribute of the bibliographic item to allow the place to be extracted by consumers of the serialisation more readily, to allow multiple locations to be associated with the publisher, and to allow only one of the places of the publisher to be associated with the production of the item.

A URI in a geographical registry may optionally be given as place/@uri. A region within which the place is located may be given as place/@region, for disambiguation purposes; using a ISO 3166 code for a country or subnational region is recommended.

SANGSTER, R. B. Roman Jakobson and beyond. Berlin, New York & The Hague: Mouton, 1984.

<bibitem type="book">
  <title>Roman Jakobson and beyond</title>
  <date type="published"><on>1984</on></date>
    <role type="author"/>
        <initial>R. B.</initial>
    <role type="publisher"/>
  <place>New York</place>
  <place>The Hague</place>

London (Ontario)

<place uri=",_Ontario" region="CA-ON">London (Ontario)</place>


The publisher is a subclass of creator (Creator).

ISO 690, 4.1 differentiates between “publisher, online information provider, production company” and “distributor, online host”.

Of the classes of creator that can be used as the publisher, “publisher or production company” and “printer or manufacturer” have bibitem/contributor/role@type = "publisher"; “distributor or issuing body” and “sponsoring body” have bibitem/contributor/role@type = "distributor".

ISO 690, 4.6 allows that distributors, issuers and sponsors can be named in addition to publishers.

Any restrictions on access to a resource imposed by an online host (e.g. geographical restrictions) should be indicated in bibitem/note.


For a point date, only date/on is populated. For a date range, date/from and date/to are populated. If the range is ongoing, the date/to element is left out.

The date for date/on, date/from and date/to is by default given as a Gregorian date/time, following the conventions of ISO 8601; in an XML serialisation, they would be expected to follow the XML Schema xs:datetime representation (see here).

However bibliographic dates often contain information that cannot be restricted to an ISO 8601 date (dates in other calendars, date corrections; other subdivisions of the year; approximate date or no date.)

For that reason, the model allows dates to be expressed in text instead of as an ISO 8601 date (date/on@text, date/from@text, date/to@text), or as well as an ISO 8601 date if a Gregorian date is still applicable.

If the textual value of a date is a date range, and ISO 8601 dates are still to be provided for the start and end of the date range, then the textual value is repeated for date/from@text and date/to@text.

Date corrections may also involve indications of provenance.

The date of copyright is associated expressly with the copyright holder, in bibitem/copyright/date/from. Unlike other bibliographic dates, the copyright date can only have a year value.

ROGET, Peter Mark. Roget’s Thesaurus. Revised by Susan M. LLOYD. Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex: Longman Group Limited, 1982 [1852].

<bibitem type="book">
  <title>Roget's Thesaurus</title>
  <date type="created"><on>1852</on></date>
  <date type="updated"><on>1982</on></date>
  <date type="published"><on>1982</on></date>
    <role type="author"/>
    <role type="editor">revised</role>
    <role type="publisher"/>
      <name>Longman Group Limited</name>
  <place>Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex</place>

2018-05-09, 21:33:28

<date type="created">

Islamic calendar 1439 [2017–2018]

<date type="created">
  <from text="Islamic calendar 1439">2017</from>
  <to text="Islamic calendar 1439">2018</to>

1959 [i.e. 1995]

<date type="created">
<date type="created" source="supplied">
  <on text="1959 [i.e. 1995]">1995</on>

Michaelmas term (Oxford), 2002

<date type="created">
  <from text="Michaelmas term (Oxford), 2002">2002-10-91</from>
  <to text="Michaelmas term (Oxford), 2002">2002-12-17</to>


<date type="created" text="1650?">

[no date]

<date type="created" text="[no date]"/>

1951 copied 1957

<date type="created">
<date type="copied">


<date type="published">

© ISO, 2018


Bibliographic date types

Dates are associated with specific phases of the production of a bibliographic item, and those phases are named through date@type.

Common dates

The default type used in bibliography is the date of publication (date[@type = "published"]), but the “created”, “updated”, “unchanged”, and “copied” dates in particular are often given where they differ from the date of publication.

The date of transmission is used instead of the date of publication for a broadcast.


Date a resource was created. (If there have been multiple versions or editions, this date applies to the first version.)


Date a resource was published (distributed by the publisher).


Date a resource was last accessed by the bibliographer; routinely used for online publications. (Unlike in ISO 690, no distinction is made between "viewed" and "accessed" based on whether the resource is human-readable or machine-readable.)


Date a resource was updated and republished. Used for new versions and editions.


Date a resource was corrected and republished. Used for new versions of documents, in cases where the correction is not considered to amount to a new edition of the document. (This is a subjective distinction made by the publisher.)


Date a resource was reprinted, i.e. republished without any changes.


Date a draft version of a resource was circulated. Drafts by definition are not published, so circulated is used instead of published for draft resources. (For standards, this is associated with the latest transition to a formally defined preparation stage, such as Working Draft or Committee Draft.)


Date a resource was broadcast.


Date a resource was physically copied, or recreated without any substantial change in content (allowing for change in medium).


Date a resource was adapted for a new purpose or audience, with some change in content (includes translation).


Date that the existence of the resource was made public knowledge; applies whether the resource has already been created or not, and whether it is to be published or not.

The date of publication is taken to be the date when the current version of the resource was published, unless a separate “unchanged”, “updated” or “copied” date is given; in that case, the date of publication is assumed to be the date of initial publication.

The date of creation is taken to apply to the work instantiated by the resource, rather than to a specific format or edition. The latter are represented by the date of adaptation and of update, respectively.

Dates pertaining to standards

The repertoire of date types is expanded to deal with the particular requirements of standards shown below.


Date a standard takes effect, becomes active.


Date a standard becomes no longer in effect, was revoked.


Date a standard is renewed to take effect by an issuing authority.


Date a standard is authorised for publication.


Date the vote for a draft of the standard started.


Date the vote for a draft of the standard ended.


The document is guaranteed not to be changed or updated until this date.