Series in Relaton

Series title and number


  • Source: ISO 690, 4.8, ISO 690, 5.2

  • Serialisation: bibitem/series


Articles have their journal title modelled as the series title of the article item. However, the journal volume and issue should be modelled as part of the article item extent (Numeration), rather than as part of the series (ISO 690, 4.7).


Standards body identifiers for standards (ISO 690, 5.9) are modelled as series numbers.

ISO 690, Information and documentation — Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources.

<bibitem type="standard">
  <title>Information and documentation -- Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources</title>
    <role type="publisher"/>
      <name>International Organization for Standardization</name>

Archival materials

The collection or fonds of archival material is modelled as a series.


Organization and Place of Publication can be added to series titles for disambiguation. Organization in this instance is only modelled as a strings, rather than as a detailed object (cf. Organisation). The formattedTitle element is used to enforce the formatting of the series title and its qualifiers.

Life. MDPI.
Life (Basel). (

  <formattedTitle>_Life_ (Basel)</formattedTitle>
  <place>New York</place>

Earlier and later titles

The current title of a series is given with series@type as "main" (which is the default); alternate titles, including historical titles, are given with series@type as "alt". Different time spans for historical titles are given with series/dateFrom and series/dateTo.

New Scientist. 1956-1971.
New Scientist and Science Journal. Jan 21, 1971-Sept 30, 1971.
_New Scientist
. 1971-.

<series type="alt">
  <title>New Scientist</title>
<series type="alt">
  <title>New Scientist and Science Journal</title>
<series type="main">
  <title>New Scientist</title>

Series runs

If a series restarts numbering its volumes, that is typically indicated in citations by giving an ordinal number for the series run, given after the series name: 1st series, 2nd series, 3rd series. More commonly, there are only two series runs for a series, and the second run is indicated as “new series”, or the abbreviation “n.s.”.

  • Vizantiiskii Vremmenik (St Petersburg/Petrograd/Leningrad, 1894-1928) and Vizantiiskii Vremmenik (Moscow, 1947-) have the same name, and volume numbering for the Moscow journal restarted at 1; the first two volumes of the new series run were numbered 1/26 and 2/27, to continue the first series. While citations could differentiate the two by city, usual practice is to insert “n.s.” after the journal title for the second series.

  • The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute was originally published as Man, from 1901-1965. The journal restarted numbering at 1 from 1966-1996 without changing name, and explicitly designating itself as a “new series”. Unlike Vizantiiskii Vremmenik, both series were published in London, so place of publication cannot differentiate between them. While the organization did change name between the two runs (from “Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland” to “Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland”), the change is slight; and the series run is preferred to differentiate the two runs.

\J. A. Barnes. 1966. Durkheim’s Division of Labour in Society. Man (n.s.) 1(2): 158-175.

<bibitem type="article"> <title lang="en">Durkheim’s Division of Labour in Society</title> <date type="published"><on>1966</on></date> <contributor> <role type="author"/> <person> <name> <surname>Barnes</surname> <formatted-initials>J. A.</formatted-initials> </name> </person> </contributor> <series> <title>Man</title> <number>1</number> <partnumber>2</partnumber> <run>new series</run> </series> <extent type="page"> <referenceFrom>158</referenceFrom> <referenceTo>175</referenceTo> </extent> </bibitem>